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uncovering more about the underlying causes and seductive traps of specific problems and how to liberate yourself,
and revealing the knowledge about ourselves that we gain along this journey of discovery towards freedom in our lives and harmony with others.
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The LearningMethods Library
In Our Own Image
An 8-part series on Human Design and Function
by David Gorman
Part 1. The General Particulars
Reprinted from The Alexander Review, Vol.1, No.1, Jan 1986,
Subsequent editing, June 1993.
Copyright © 1986, 1993 by David Gorman, All rights reserved world-wide
And Man said, Let us know ourselves
in our own image, after our own likeness:
and let us have command of ourselves;
over all the activities of our bodies,
and all the attentions of our minds,
and over all our creations that creep
upon the earth, and all our imaginings
that have yet to be brought forth.
THIS SERIES IS DEDICATED TO EXPLORING how we can constructively think about
ourselves. To accomplish this we'll have to take into account not only our physical structure (our
design) but also how that anatomy is designed to work (our function) and, most important of
all, how we as conscious, energetic creatures go about in the world doing our activities and being
aware of ourselves (our use). Our conceptions about ourselves and the way we use ourselves are,
of course, the same thing and may or may not be at all in line with the way we're designed to
As anyone who is familiar with the Alexander work knows (and especially teachers of the Technique), quite a radical
change in our approach to ourselves must be made from our old habits if we are to have any significant improvement. Obviously, along
with 'poor use' in any physical sense goes an equally unconstructive habit of thinking. So along with any positive change must come
an equally radical shift in our conception of ourselves. I can't reach out of these pages with my hands and deal directly with your
physical use at this moment, but I can, with words and ideas, reach into your old habits of thinking where there might be lurking various
misconceptions, contradictions, vague assumptions, and murky conclusions and help re-organize them into clearer and more consonant
patterns in line with the way you're actually built and in line with the way you'd like to function.
I don't propose to go into much technical detail or jargon for the simple reason that I
don't want to discuss THE Human Body as an anatomical, physiological and mechanical entity as
it is usually done. For all of its faults, this traditional, objective approach has a great deal of value
and is a very powerful tool for a doctor or a therapist to use in order to accomplish healing in other
people's bodies. However, it is most unconstructive as information that we might want to apply to our
own selves from within.
Here these details only seem to confuse and separate us from ourselves. Instead, I am
going to approach this with a more personal, less abstract point of view which includes in YOUR
human body, the living thinking you. If we are to learn to use ourselves well in everyday life we need
a way of understanding which uses everyday language and which stays within (or at least keeps
returning to) our everyday experience of ourselves.
There are many levels over which we will have to range in order to make sense of
ourselves. The most detailed is that of physiological mechanisms like the stretch reflex or how muscle
is activated. This is not a level on which we actually perceive ourselves in the normal course of
things and hence is of little relevance except in as much as we need to understand some of the
implications of these details for the larger view.
Next there is the level of the usual anatomical bits — the named bones, muscles,
ligaments, etc. like the femur, the scapula, the finger flexors, the diaphragm. We also do not
normally experience in a direct and isolated way these bits and pieces, though we will need to refer
to them as the constituents of the next level.
Where we do really begin to experience and use ourselves is at the level of parts (your
head, your hand, your fingers, your back, the front of your thigh, etc.), and junctions between parts
(your elbow, your hip, your knee, your neck, etc.), and at the level of functional areas (your
breathing, your voice, your walking, etc.). This is the common currency of how we feel ourselves and
talk about ourselves. But as the common currency of our perceptions it is at this level we find the
root of most of our common problems.
This is so not only because to concentrate our attention here is to remain a collection
of parts, but also because our attention is naturally drawn to those areas where we have problems
generally to the exclusion of other areas. In addition, these elements of experience define quite
different territory for different people. For some, the experience of their head will extend downward
and include part of their actual neck; some have their breathing taking place in completely different
geographical areas than others; and some people perceive their hip joints inches higher up in their
pelvis. These sort of mismatches between different people or between an individual's perception of
himself and his actual structure have immense repercussions at the next broader level.
At the next higher level we begin to enter a brave new domain. This is the level of
interaction between our parts and areas — how the use of your arm affects your breathing, the
consequences to your walking when you arch your back, how the freedom in your knees is affected by
lifting up the arches in your feet — a somewhat intangible level which is not this part or that part
but how they get along together. This cooperation or interference can include connections between
seemingly distant parts of ourselves — the effect of locking your knees on your voice, for example. It
is an understanding of these patterns of interaction that can reduce the mystery of so many of our
chronic complaints. We'll spend much time roaming about here.
But there is an even broader and more important level — the level of the organization of
these interacting parts and functions into a sensitive, responsive whole. This is, of course, the
level of you, the person reading this article. It is this central organization that determines the
quality of the interactions spoken of above and the state of health or damage of our parts. And it is
the whole person who determines the central organization of themselves by the way they perceive
themselves and their activity. That organization can be regarded as our approach to ourselves, our
policy of being, our way of working — our Manner of Use. Our use of ourselves can be one where the way we organize ourselves draws
together into a harmonious whole all our parts and functions so that they all work well in themselves and actually augment the
function of all the other parts—Good Use. Or it can be a way of operating which does not tap into the in-built central harmony of our
system so that not only are our parts being interfered with in their own functions, but they in turn
interfere with functions around them such that we end up working against ourselves — Poor Use.
Thus we come full circle; back to the way we think of ourselves. We will need to dip
into the details to help explain the whole, but we'll always need to keep coming back up to that
whole, the nature of the central organization — what Alexander called the Primary Control — if we are to
gain a deep understanding of the principle behind the Alexander Technique.
Let us now begin with a look at your general physical organization. The most fundamental
of your characteristics is your endedness, your extension in space in a length direction. This basic
vertebrate quality of length is a product of your spine. The spine is the primary organizer of
the torso. It is, first and foremost, a lengthening device; hopefully also a flexible
lengthening device. You are, in a manner of speaking, a flexible torso with appendages.
Furthermore, this endedness of yours is not just an unbiased length, it has a direction
to its organization. This in-built directedness is toward your head end. Your head leads and
the rest of your body follows. In the embryo, and later as children, development progresses
from the head back to rest of the body. Most of your attention to the world is grabbed through the
externally-directed senses located in your head; you also search out much information about your
surroundings and your own activity by the orienting of these head-located perceptual systems. Most of
your intention out into the world is directed out from your head — from your eyes for directing
activities, from your eyes, face, and mouth in communication, etc..
In a figurative sense you are like a large arrow with your head being the arrowhead and
the rest of you the shaft. A measure of the extent of this head-oriented bias is evident in the
feeling many people have that 'they', the point of consciousness, live up in the control booth of
their head somewhere behind the TV screens of their eyes whence they operate their body like some
large and ungainly machine — there's me, but then there's also my body. While this
feeling is an unfortunate separation of the point of the arrow from the rest, it can be seen to have a
basis, however extremely exaggerated, in our inherent nature.
There is a very big difference, though, between the general organization of your torso
and that of your limbs. Your arms and your legs are much more similar than they are different. They
have the same basic patterns of bony structure and muscular arrangement and are so built that most of
the bones are long and stick-like. The bones run down the centre of the limb with the soft tissues
arranged around the outside. These soft tissues are not organs as we usually think of organs, but
mostly muscles, tendons, and ligaments having to do with the operating of the limb. They tend (the
muscles in particular) to be long worm-like in shape and run more or less along, or curl around, in
the direction of the length of the limb.
Within those similarities, your arms and legs differ in virtually opposite ways. Your
arms take their rooting and grounding from your torso and extend out into the world embodying a large
number of possible movements that we can put together in various combinations. In the most general
sense, your arm is a means of getting your hand around so that you can manipulate things and make
changes in the world. Your legs, however, take their grounding and support from the ground. They
operate, for the most part, up at their other end to support and move you around. In this same general
sense, we could speak of arms as having an active, explorative nature since they are normally
used to do things and explore your surroundings. We could speak of legs as being responsive
since their activity is usually a response to the activity of the whole of you.
Your torso has quite a different organization reflecting its older origins,
evolutionarily speaking. Here the bones are arranged around the outside enclosing a space inside for
your organs. The musculature here tends to be broad sheets in overlapping layers which run between the
bones to complete the walls of this space. Your torso, in other words, is primarily a volume, a container,
for your life support organ systems. While your limbs tend to be about activity and doing (to
be even more general) your torso tends to be about being, with your organs providing the
ongoing energy and metabolic support for your doing.
Let us look more closely. Your head is clearly a bony container for your delicate brain,
as well as a framework for your major external senses and the openings to your digestive and
respiratory systems. The ribs in your chest have the primary job, not of protecting your organs, but
of making sure there is maintained the important volume for your heart and lungs (even though the
whole point is that it be a changeable volume so that free breathing can take place). Down in your
abdomen the container has mostly muscular walls for the quite variable volume of your digestive
system. And finally your pelvis forms a strong and firm base for the container as well as a framework
for your reproductive organs and the outlets of your digestive and urinary systems.
Connecting all these areas is your spine, the major lengthening device of this
container. Take away your spine and your head would be inside your ribs, which would be sitting on top
of each other, all of which would be piled neatly inside your pelvis. Your spine, in other words, is a
spacer that takes care of the expansion of the container in a length direction. From this
length the other parts take care of an expansion outwards into width. The length is primary; without
it there can be no effective width, as we shall see in future articles.
Figuratively speaking, your spine is the limb for your torso. Those prongs you feel
sticking backwards from each vertebra may be right under the skin of your back, but the actual
limb-like column of bones runs up inside the centre of you at least as much at it runs up your back.
In fact, in your neck the spine is virtually in the centre with your throat in the front half and
masses of muscles in the back. It deviates to about three-quarters the way back through your chest
then comes forward in your lower back to about two-thirds the way back. The spinal muscles, too,
arranged along the length of the spine tend to be somewhat long and limb-like. Indeed, due to
evolutionary changes, your neck is not so much an organ container now as it is a limb for your head.
It's your head's way of getting around.
If your head leads and the rest of your body follows as an in-built organization, and
your spine connects your head to all your other parts, then there are obviously some very important
interactions that take place between your spine and these other areas, particularly up at the head
end. In future articles in this series I'll look into these interactions and continue to throw light
on this inherent Primary Control. Next issue we'll explore the repercussions of the completely
different kind of joints in your torso compared with your limbs and what constitutes the optimal
environment for your life-support systems.
...continued in Part 2, The Nature of the Torso...
Read the other articles in this series;
No. 1 No. 2
There is a
small biography of personal details about the author below.
About the Author
David Gorman developed the LearningMethods work out
of over 40 years of research and teaching experiences. His background is in art and science and
a fascination with exploring human structure and function. In the early 1970s he spent many nights
dissecting and drawing in the human anatomy lab. In 1981 he published an illustrated 600-page
work on our human musculo-skeletal system called The Body Moveable (about to enter its 6th edition) and in 1996, a collection of
articles, Looking at Ourselves (now in its 2nd edition).
He happened upon the Alexander Technique in 1972 and was immediately intrigued
by its power for change. After training as an Alexander Technique teacher with Walter Carrington in London, David has
been teaching that work since 1980, becoming well-known worldwide
for his innovations to the work and notorious for challenging the orthodoxy of the profession.
He has been invited to teach all over the world in universities, conservatories and training colleges,
at conferences and symposia, and with performance groups and health professionals.
In 1982, his teaching was revolutionised by his discovery of a new model of
human organisation — Anatomy of Wholeness — with its
profound implications about our in-built natural tendency toward balance, ease and wholeness. He
extended these insights into a new way of training teachers of the Alexander Technique and from
1988 to 1997 in London, England he trained 45 teachers.
His experiences with his own students and in other training groups made it clear
that a huge part of our chronic problems lay not in the 'body' but in our consciousness and habitual
way of seeing things and how we misinterpret our daily experiences and then become caught in reaction
to these misunderstandings. At this point it also became apparent that his discoveries revealed
new premises which in turn implied new teaching methods, so David developed the LearningMethods
work to teach people how to apply their in-built intelligence and clarity of perception to their
daily experience in order to understand their problems, solve them and more successfully navigate their
Since the beginning of this new work in 1997, David has trained a growing number
of LearningMethods Teachers, many of whom are now teaching the LM work in universities and conservatories,
and he has now begun a new modular training program
for LearningMethods, Anatomy of Wholeness and the Alexander Technique, pioneering new ways to learn and teach via online
Telephone: +1 416-519-5470
78 Tilden Crescent, Etobicoke, Ontario M9P 1V7 Canada (map)